The Principles and Practice of Engineering (PE) exam tests for a minimum level of competency in a particular engineering discipline. It is designed for engineers who have gained a minimum of four years’ post-college work experience in their chosen engineering discipline.
The PE Civil exam is an 8-hour exam with 80 questions. It is administered in pencil-and-paper format twice per year in April and October. See the exam schedule for specific dates.
Prepare for your exam by
Familiarize yourself with your state licensing board’s unique
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before registering for a PE exam. Special accommodations are available for examinees who meet certain eligibility criteria and sufficiently document their request.
The PE Civil exam is a breadth and depth examination. This means that examinees work the breadth section in the morning and one of the five depth modules in the afternoon. The breadth section contains questions from all five areas of civil engineering. The depth section focuses more closely on a single area of practice.
For details on the format and length of the exam, the topics covered, and applicable design standards, select your engineering discipline below to download the exam specifications. PE exam specifications and design standards are posted 6 months before the exam administration. Updates for the April exams are posted in November, and updates for the October exams are posted in May.
When registering for the PE Civil exam, you will be asked to select an afternoon module. Your answer sheet will be scored based on the module that you selected during registration.
The cost to take the PE exam varies from state to state (or foreign location). Depending on where you register, fees may be paid directly to NCEES, a state licensing board, or a designee of the board. Visit the engineering licensure section, and select your exam location for more information about your registration fees and payees. You may be prompted to contact your state licensing board (or foreign entity) directly.
This pencil-and-paper exam is an open-book exam. You are allowed to bring bound reference materials, but they must remain bound during the exam. Loose paper may be bound with
No staples will be permitted. Sticky notes and flags are permitted only when attached to bound materials. More information is available in the
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Legal historian Cynthia Nicoletti’s new book says failing to try and execute Confederate President Jefferson Davis for treason left questions about secession’s legality.
Why wasn’t Confederate President Jefferson Davis ever tried for treason? According to a new book, it’s because the Union thought there was a strong possibility that his case would raise troubling questions about the constitutionality of secession, and that a possible acquittal would signal that the Union’s war effort had been unjustified.
, a legal history professor at the University of Virginia School of Law, looks at the quandary in “
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,” published this month by Cambridge University Press.
Davis’ trial, which would have served as a test case for the legality of secession, was delayed for four years before ultimately being dropped. Among government officials, there was concern that the prosecution could backfire.
In the abstract, it wouldn’t have been hard to prove that Davis committed treason.
“Treason in the Constitution is levying war against the United States,” Nicoletti said. “It was incredibly easy for them to prove that Davis levied war against the U.S.; that was his job.”
But, she said, that all changes if Davis wasn’t a U.S. citizen at the time he did so. Many in the South, and even some in the North, believed states had the right to leave a union they voluntarily joined.
“Davis’ argument would go: ‘When my state, Mississippi, seceded from the Union in 1861, that removed my United States citizenship,’” Nicoletti said. “And treason is a crime of loyalty; in order to commit it, you need to be a U.S. citizen. So everybody thought at the time that this case was going to raise the question of whether secession is constitutional, and there was worry about whether or not Davis was going to be convicted.”
Official acts by the Union preceding and during the war, such as allowing for prisoner swaps and observing other rights of foreign governments under the law of nations, might have been used to bolster the argument for secession’s legitimacy.
Nicoletti said the Union had decided against a military trial for Davis, which most certainly would have led to a swift verdict against him, resulting in his execution.
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This information is provided by the Cleveland Clinic and is not intended to replace the medical advice of your doctor or healthcare provider. Please consult your healthcare provider for advice about a specific medical condition. This document was last reviewed on: 05/24/2012